A large amount of concrete damage is the result of the penetration of deleterious materials into the concrete, including both liquid and gaseous materials. Before carbonation/ chlorides, the alkaline environment protects the steel reinforcement from corrosion.

Aggressive Influences on Reinforced Concrete

In reinforced concrete the steel is normally protected against corrosion by the passivating alkalinity of the cement matrix. Due to the ingress of aggressive environmental influences the steel can corrode. Three conditions must exist for reinforcing steel to corrode:

  • The passivation of the steel must have been destroyed by chlorides or by carbonation
  • The presence of moisture as an electrolyte
  • The presence of oxygen



Carbon dioxide ingress causes carbonation of the cement matrix progressively reducing the passivating alkaline protection of the steel reinforcement to a level where corrosion can occur.


Chloride Attack

Chloride ions from deicing salts or marine exposure are carried into the concrete in solution in water. At the steel surface, even in alkaline concrete, they attack and break down the passivating layer and then accelerate the steel corrosion process.

The effect of the aggressive influences


As soon as sufficient chloride ions (from deicing salts or marine exposure) or the carbonation front have reached the steel surface, the passive layer is destroyed and corrosion accelerates.


Contact with Water (Moisture)

The original neutral iron will receive a negative charge as the positively loaded ions have the tendency to dissolve. The water film around the metal turns positive.


Contact with Oxygen

The oxygen takes on the negative charge of the iron ions which have gone into solution. The result is iron hydroxide, the first stage of rust.